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The four elements are earth and water (heavy), and fire and air (light). In terms of qualities, the heavy elements are strong, negative, passive, and female. The light elements are weak, positive, active, heavenly, and male. The chart below shows various correspondences for elements.

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Season Spring Summer Autumn Winter
Age Childhood Youth Maturity Old Age
Region East South West North
Element Air Fire Earth Water
Humor Blood Yellow Bile Black Bile Phlegm
Personality Sanguine Choleric Melacholic Phlegmatic

Elements Attributes

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Earth Water
Tendency Spreading Drooping
Bodily system Skeleton Muscles
Excretion Feces Urine
Sense Touch Taste
Bodily function Form Nutrition
Mentality Torpid Phlegmatic
Mental State Obstinacy Fearfulness Submission Affection
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Air Fire
Tendency To and Fro Rising
Bodily system Circulation Liver
Excretion Saliva Sweat, Tears
Sense Hearing Smell
Bodily function Respiration Digestion, Voluntary
Mentality Cheerful Emotional
Mental State Humor Weeping, Anger

Know Your Temperament

How to Determine The Temperament Of An Individual

Signs of temperament

  1. Malmas (feel by teaching)

The signs which assist in the diagnosis of temperament are given under the following ten headings:

The temperament of a person in diagnosed by comparing the feel of his body with that of a normal person under equable climatic and atmospheric conditions. If feel is the same in both cases the temperament is balanced it may, however, be relatively hot or cold. Whose some person of balanced temperament finds that the feel of another's is hot or cold hard or soft, smooth or rough as against his own the temperament of the other person is like to be abnormal provided there is nothing to roughen or soften the body such as atmospheric changes and baths. Some times the softness, roughness and dryness of finger nails help to reveal the temperament provided it has not resulted from some extraneous cause.

The conclusim drawn from a soft or hard feel defend upon the proper balance of heat and cold (in the body) because excess of heat after dispersing the moisture make the body soft and moist even hen it was originally hard. Cold makes the normal or even soft body hard as in the ease of ice and solid fasts. This may cause some confusion persons of cold temperament, generally feel soft even though they are this and weal. This is an account of the excess of immature humors. Muscularity and Adiposity A good muscular development indicates greater neat and moisture

Muscularity and Adiposity

in the body. In such cases the body feel find and solid to touch poor muscular development and deficiency of fat indicate dryness. Excess of fat and oiliness (of skin) point to the cold temperament. In such case the body feels soft and flabby. If veins are narrow, there is anemia and hunger produces early weakness and fatigue-from deficiency of pure blood.

Which provides nutrition the temperament is likely to be innately and naturally cold. When, however, there signs are not absent the cold temperament is likely to have been acquired and thus of a temperament nature Deficiency of both solid and liquid fat indicates a hot temperament the material in both types of fat is derived from the oily contents of blood while the deposits of fat is caused by the prevailing cold this is the reason for the relatively less deposit of fat or the liver then or the intestines the heat has a larger amounts of fat net because of its shape and temperament but because of:

  1. Excessive fat in the body &
  2. The inherent attraction of the heart for fat.

The deficiency or excess of fat in the body, however, depends upone the excess or deficiently of the body is muscular but not fatty the temperament is likely to be hot and moist. If a long with the museles a moderate amount of fat in also present it denotes heat with an excess of moisture in the body. When both solid and liquid fats are abundant there is excess of cold and moisture in the body and thus a cold and most temperament.

Leanness of the body is most marked in cases of excursive cold and dryness. Nest to it in the descending order are heat and dryness, then dryness with proper balance of heat and cold and finally, heat with balanced dryness and moisture.

3. Hair

Of the signs pertaining to hair, the following points demand consideration: Rapidity or slowness of growthExcess or scantinessThinness or thicknessStraightness or curlinessColoursa) rate of hair growth : Slow growth or lack of growth is a

i. Rapidity or slowness of growth
ii. Excess or scantiness
iii. Thinness or thickness
iv. Straightness or curliness
v. Colours

a) Rate of hair growth :

sign of excessive moisture provided there are no interfering factors such as anemia, malnutritiss etc. Rapid growth of hair is a sign of dryness. Heat and moisture when present are known from other signs with will be described later lohess heat and dryness are present together, the hair becomes thick and profuse and grows more rapidly. This is because rapid growth results from excess of heat while thickness from excess of smoke (metabolic products) hence adult's hair is coarse but of children of is fine because they have less smokiness and more moisture. This and scanty hair is a sign of the cold and moist temperament. b) Shape of Hair Cur limens Indicates hot

b) Shape of Hair

and dry temperament although cur limens some time may be from the tortuosity of skin openings (the hair follicles) and not necessarily because of hot and dry temperament. The first tow factors viz. dryness and mosture are subject to variations. c) Colour of Hair dark colour paints to a hot and brown to cold temperament. Tawny hair

c) Colour of Hair

denotes a balanced temperament. Grey hair paints to a cold and moist temperament as in old people some time grey hair is a sign of extreme dryness as in the cause of plants which lose their dark green colour and turn which an account of dryness. This happens also in the dry group of diseases. According to Aristotle, hair turns grey because of phlegm. It must be remembered that the colour of hair in influenced by habitat and climate. This we connot expect the black hair of Negroes to turn blonde and the light hair of salve to become dark with out corresponding changes in their normal temperaments. Age tow exercises a material influence on the colour of hair. In youth, colour of hair is similar to that of the people in southern countries, while the colour in child hood in like that of the people in northern countries. During middle age colour of hair resembles that of the people living in the central region. d) Excers and scantiness of hair in children Excers of hair in a sign of excessive sauda in elderly persons it is, however, a

d) Excers and scantiness of hair in children

sign of sauda being already excessive. 4. Complexion pallor denotes loss for deficiency of blood and therefore, a cold

4. Complexion

temperament. If with deficient blood there is heat or excess of bile, the complexion is yellow and not pale. Rosy complexion indicates excess of heats well as more blood while the yellow and blond colours paint to excess of simple heat. Yellow complexions, however, indicates excess of bile while a blonde complexion paints to excess of blood or bilious. Occasionally, as an convalescents, yellow colour may be the result of anemia rather than excessive file. A bluish tinge paints to excess of cold. It is an indication that there is less blood formation and whatever little blood in from is being congealed and thus becomes dark. Whealy complexion is a sign of heat while purple colour denotes cold and dryness from the excess of souda. Chalky colour is a sign of cold and phlegm. Ivory complexion paints to a small quantity of bile being mixed in the cold phlegm. The type of complexion is found in disorders of the liver while dark yellow colour is generally seen is dis-orderders of the spleen. Colour of the tongue is an excellent guide to the temperamental condition of blood versels both the pulsating arteries as well ad the quiescent veins colour of eyes is a reliable indication of the temperament condition of brain. Some times, in the same disease, colour of are organ may differ from that of the other for example, in the case of excessive combustion of bile, the tongue is white but the face is dark. Physique Persons of hot


temperament have blood chests, with large and well developed but not small and narrow hands and feet. The blood vessels are prominent and of wide caliber and pulse generally strong and of large volume. These people have good muscular development especially around the joints. This is because growth and development are carried out by heat. Persons of cold temperament have the opposite characteristics because cold hinders the growth and functional maturity of organs. The characteristics of a dry temperaments are dryness and roughness of the skins, prominence of joints, thinness and prominence of nasal and tracheal cartilages and an erect nose. 6. Sleep & Wakeful ness Natural sleep and wakefulness are signs of normal balance particularity in brain. Excessive sleep

6. Sleep & Wakeful ness

denotes undue cold and moisture while excess of wakefulness paints to excess of heat and dryness especially in the brain. Functional state of organs As long as the functions are performed in a natural well integrated and "whole" manner, the

Functional state of organs

temperament is will balanced. Over active and exaggerated functions, such as rapid growth and movements, indicate excess of heat eg. Rapid development of organs, growth of hair and quick eruptions of teeth. Weakness and sluggish mass of functions is a sign of cold temperament. A hot temperament can also produce wcak and sluggish movements but in that case disturbance of physical functions is generally. The result of associated weakness. Several physiological functions are lost or impaired by heat eg. loss or reduction of sleep. On the other hand some physiological activities are increased by cold eg. steep sleep is however, not absolutely and independently physiological but is necessary. It is not for its own sake but because it gives the vital force rest from exhausting activities. Sleep enables the vital force to devote its undivided attention to digestion. This is not possible in wakefulness which is inverse activities. It is thus clear that sleep is indispensable and thus natural. A phenomenon which is indispensable is natural by virtue of necessity.

Functions are reliable indication of temperaments of temperament when these are normal and healthy the temperament is balanced. Entrances of hot, cold, dry, and most temperament for the functional state of organs are however, a rough guide. Functions which point to heat are blood and powerful voice, continuous and rapid speech, shert temper, brisk movements and frequent blinking. The are signs not only of general heat in the body but also of heat in the corresponding organs.


The conditions of excretions stool urine and sweat also indicates the temperament state of the body. Thus strong odours, high colour, full maturity and proper consistency of excretions are signs of heat. The opposite features denot coldness of temperament.

Psychological Activity

The sign of heat pertaining to the actions and reaction of psyche (Quqa-un-nafs) are: Intensity of anger

a. Depth of sadness and sorrow
b. A cuteness of perception and memory
c. Excessive initiative
d. Lack of scruples
e. Over trust
f. Optimism
g. Callousness
h. Vigilance
i. Manliness
j. Active habits
k. Insensitivity and slowness reactions

A cold temperament is charecterised by offsite qualities. Persistence of joy or anger and good memory indicate dryness wile forgetfulness is a sign of excessive moisture.

Dreams also paint to the nature of temperament eg Dreams of sitting near the five, or bathing in the sum paint to heat while feeling of chillness and of being submerged in cold water suggest a cold temperament. Dominances of various humors have their won characteristic dreams.

All or at least, majority of the signs mentioned above are diagnostic of the innate and congenital temperaments.


The sign of balanced temperament selected from amongst the signs described above are summarized as follows!

  1. Feel of the body is balanced in respect of heat, cold dryness, moisture, softness and hardness
  2. Complexion ranges between pallor and redness.
  3. Body build is neither too heavy non too lean.
  4. Blood verses are neither superficial and prominent non deeply submerged and hidden.
  5. Hair is neither profuse non scanty and neither too think and dark of maturity.
  6. Sleep and wakefulness are moderate.
  7. Movements are free and easy.
  8. Intellectual powers and memory are good.
  9. Habits and behaviour are balanced betweens courage and timidity, anger and calmness, callousness and leniency, ready violence and quality dignity, pride and humility.
  10. Functions of all organs in the body are "whole" and correct.
  11. Growth is rapid and deterioration of faculties slow.
  12. Dream are interesting and pleasing and portray cheerful and pleasant company with sweet voices and fragrant surroundings
  13. Good humor, popularity and geniality are fairly characteristic.
  14. Meals are enjoyed and consumed is moderation and digested and assimilated normally.
  15. Excretory functions are regular and normal.

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